The resulting farming model was characterized by scale enlargement, specialization, intensification and integration in the agro-industrial food chain.These "vanguard farms" are strongly dependent on external capital, inputs, knowledge and labour, and are vulnerable to changes in market, price, trade, environmental and structural policies.This chapter focuses on how farm women are being affected by the transformations that are taking place in both Eastern and Western Europe and on their actual and potential contributions to achieving the broad goals of these transformations.
In Western Europe, many women from farm households work only off-farm, others have migrated to urban areas, many others combine on- and off-farm work and some are engaged in activities such as agrotourism which have little to do with actual on-farm production.
Change is occurring in gender relations manifest at a macrosocial level (e.g.
in the composition of the labour force, in educational systems, in policies oriented towards equality or emancipation) as well as within farm households, although there the gender division of labour appears to be relatively impermeable to change and continues to have very substantial effects on women's position both on- and off-farm.
Finally, conclusions and recommendations are drawn linking issues of farm women's emancipation, environment, human development and agrofood system adjustment in the two regions.
Adjustment in the two major regions of Europe is concerned with the profitability, sustainability, safety and quality of food and agriculture, as well as with the development of human resources, the quality of living and the natural environment in rural areas.