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The pace of change, however, was sluggish; the rehabilitation of Stalinist-era victims, such as those convicted in the Slánský trials, may have been considered as early as 1963, but did not take place until 1967.
The Soviet model of industrialization applied poorly to Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia was already quite industrialized before World War II and the Soviet model mainly took into account less developed economies.
Novotný's attempt at restructuring the economy, the 1965 New Economic Model, spurred increased demand for political reform as well.
The Programme suggested it was now necessary to ensure important positions were "filled by capable, educated socialist expert cadres" in order to compete with capitalism.
Gustáv Husák, who replaced Dubček and also became president, reversed almost all of Dubček's reforms.A few months later, at a party meeting, it was decided that administrative actions against the writers who openly expressed support of reformation would be taken.Since only a small part of the union held these beliefs, the remaining members were relied upon to discipline their colleagues.) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.It began on 5 January 1968, when reformist Alexander Dubček was elected First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ), and continued until 21 August 1968 when the Soviet Union and other members of the Warsaw Pact invaded the country to halt the reforms.